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What is Blockchain? How Does it Work?

While the internet, fueled by information technology, transformed the world in recent decades, blockchain technology is the new buzzword ushering in a new age in the digital revolution. Despite the fact that Satoshi Nakamoto invented it in 2009 to power the bitcoin platform, it has since evolved into a groundbreaking technology with the potential to change the face of business, education, government, healthcare, and other areas due to its extremely secure and impenetrable design. It is not an exaggeration to argue that blockchain technology will alter the world and that no business or organization will be unaffected by it in the far future. It would not be an overstatement to say that blockchain technology will revolutionize the world and that no industry or institution will be left untouched by this technology in the distant future. This is backed by the fact that Blockchain technology is already generating a stir in a variety of industries, including education, government, finance and banking, healthcare, power, cybersecurity, and many more. As a result, blockchain technology is the future, and it is here to stay. Additionally, blockchain courses will rise with this demand.

Therefore, it is without a doubt best to arm yourself with the knowledge that could influence the future. You can steer this journey in the proper direction with the help of a Blockchain Course. The California Institute of Technology (Caltech), located in the United States, offers a prestigious blockchain bootcamp program that gives students practical experience while teaching the principles of the platforms for Bitcoin, Hyperledger, Ethereum, Ripple, and Multichain.

What is a blockchain?

Most likely, we have encountered the term in connection with cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and have pondered what the big deal was. It is the technology that serves as the foundation for cryptocurrencies and has numerous online applications. So, let’s examine blockchain technology in more detail. Blockchains are distributed, decentralized ledgers that keep track of and record digital assets and commercial transactions. In order to store blocks of data, it primarily employs encryption. Any new data supplied to the blockchain system is chained to the block before it, tracing the history of digital data. Due to its ability to store any kind of data, even though it was first designed especially as a digital ledger for cryptocurrency systems, it now has a wide range of applications. Furthermore, the blockchain is used in a decentralized fashion, offering control to all users rather than just one by allowing several users to access and verify data at the same time in real time. Also, because blockchain uses immutable technical standards, data entered cannot be changed. It provides transparency, traceability, and trust in addition to its decentralized and distributed technology with a peer-to-peer protocol.

Key concepts of a Blockchain

Before delving into the specifics of how a blockchain works, it’s crucial to grasp the fundamental notions of a blockchain.

What is a block?

As the name ‘blockchain’ suggests, data is stored in multiple blocks that are encrypted, which in turn are linked to one another to form a chain-like structure.

Now each block consists of four main components:

  1. The ‘data’- The ‘data’ consists of the information saved in each block, which is mostly digital transactions. The data held within a block varies depending on the type of blockchain.

The Bitcoin blockchain, for example, preserves transaction details such as the sender, receiver, and number of currencies.

  1. The ‘nonce’- an abbreviation that stands for ‘number used just once.’ A nonce is a 32-bit integer that is produced at random whenever a new block is created, or a transaction is validated. It is used to increase the security of the blockchain.
  2. The ‘hash’- each block has a hash, which is a number that is permanently associated with the nonce and can be used to identify a block and all of its contents. It is always distinct, much like a fingerprint. The hash will change if something inside the block changes. In other words, hashes are quite valuable when detecting changes to blocks.
  3. Hash of the previous block- The hash of the preceding block is the last component in each block. This method, which effectively generates a chain of blocks by connecting each block to the hash of the preceding block, is what makes a blockchain so secure.

How does blockchain work?

The digital transaction process in a decentralised ledgers in blockchain can be outlined in five steps, which are as follows:

Stage 1: Transaction Facilitation- A new transaction is added to the blockchain system in the form of a new block in the first step. All information is encrypted twice using cryptography keys (public and private). Both sets of these keys are held by the parties involved in the digital transaction, allowing them to complete the transaction successfully by using a secure and unique digital reference. This is known as a digital signature.

Stage 2: Transmitting the transaction- The transaction is subsequently transmitted to a peer-to-peer network of computers dispersed throughout the world in step two. The network’s nodes will all then verify the transaction’s legitimacy to see if there are enough funds to complete it.

Stage 3: Transaction Verification – By resolving mathematical equations, the participating computers in the network—also known as nodes of the blockchain system—evaluate the transactions and certify their legitimacy. When a “consensus” is formed among 51% of the participating computers, the transaction is then considered to be valid. The node that completes the mathematical process correctly is chosen to add the new block to the blockchain network and is compensated. Mining is the process of adding a new block to the chain, and the participant is referred to as a “miner.”

Stage 4: Creating the hash- The freshly verified block is time-stamped with a distinctive hash computed using the consensus algorithm. Each block contains the hash of the previous block, which is how they are cryptographically connected to one another to form a “chain” of electronic recordings of data.

Stage 5: Transaction is complete- The transaction is completed and successfully transferred between the parties involved as soon as the fresh block is introduced to the blockchain system. The transaction’s digital records are permanently kept on the blockchain.


IEMLabs is an ISO 27001:2013 and ISO 9001:2015 certified company, we are also a proud member of EC Council, NASSCOM, Data Security Council of India (DSCI), Indian Chamber of Commerce (ICC), U.S. Chamber of Commerce, and Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). The company was established in 2016 with a vision in mind to provide Cyber Security to the digital world and make them Hack Proof. The question is why are we suddenly talking about Cyber Security and all this stuff? With the development of technology, more and more companies are shifting their business to Digital World which is resulting in the increase in Cyber Crimes.


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