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Printed Circuit Board Definition

Printed circuit Board assembly is an important phase in the manufacturing of electronics circuits and electronic devices. It is crucial for better performance, good reliability, and functionality of any electronic device. As PCB assembly is so important, let’s discuss the printed circuit board assembly definition and its assembly process and further explore the best considerations. 

Printed circuit boards are the basic building blocks of any electronic device, which work as an integrated connector to connect all different electronic components.  A printed circuit board or PCB is the soul and heart of every electronic circuit. Printed Circuit Board (PCB) designing, manufacturing, and assembly in today’s modern era of technology play a crucial role in electronic field.

1. Printed Circuit Board Assembly (PCBA):

Printed Circuit Board, also short for PCB require all components assembled on  PCB bare board to make and create a functional electronic circuit. This phase includes many steps and processes as follows.

  • PCB Design and Production

Any PCB started from PCB design. PCB design help us to form the physical form of our electronics circuits. Given its responsibility for establishing electrical connections among components and facilitating a device’s interaction with the external environment, it is apparent that even minor design oversights can result in additional delays or expenses during manufacturing. 

Moreover, these errors may lead to malfunctions or complete circuit failures. While advanced design tools have enabled significant reductions in production costs for PCB manufacturers, occasional increases in manufacturing expenses may occur due to mistakes in the PCB design phase. It’s essential to note that errors are not uncommon, even for seasoned PCB designers. Therefore, adhering to straightforward guidelines is advised to avoid recurring the ten most prevalent design mistakes, which we will elaborate on shortly. 

  • PCB Manufacturing

When PCBs are designed, we will need to find a PCB manufacturer to produce PCB bare board. This is a quite complex task. So we need to choose a really reliable partner, like Viasion who has been supplying PCBs for more than 16 years

printed circuit board assemblies 

  • PCB Assembly:

In the PCB assembly process, an automatic pick and place machine is needed to place electronic components onto the board surface to the exact place needed. In old ages, PCB assemblies had an issue, as PCB components were unable to be placed very close to each 

other, as people had assembled components by hand in PCB assembly process. This pick-and-place process makes the PCB assembly process more efficient and reliable by decreasing size which also makes it cost effective. Start with a flat PCB usually made up of fiberglass along copper traces. Electronic components, such as resistors, capacitors, integrated circuits, and connectors, are placed onto the board based on the design specifications. 

  • Reflow Soldering
  • Inspection
  • Through-Hole Component Insertion
  • Cleaning
  • Testing
  • Quality Control
  • Packaging and Shipping:

Once the PCBA passes all inspections and tests, it is packaged for shipment. Packaging is designed to protect the components and PCB during transportation and storage.

2. Best Practices in PCB Assembly:

  • Design for Manufacturability (DFM)

Design for Manufacturability in PCB designing and assembly are steps and principles which purpose is to optimize the PCB design so that the cost effective, reliability, speed and effectiveness factors are achieved during PCB assembly process. Applying DFM practices in the beginning of design phase can benefit us in improved production, less errors and faults, and reduced assembly time. Begin with a PCB design that consider the makes easy the fabricating phase, minimizing difficult layouts, utilize standard components and also consider the components placement for making efficient assembly process.

  • Standard Components for PCB Assembly

Select standard and high quality components from authentic, reliable suppliers. Make sure that components are as per the requirement process and according to given specification. Standard component for PCB assembly includes IC’s, Sensors, Resistors, Inductors, diodes, transistors, and capacitors etc. These are electronics components. Every components have its own importance and function. Such as for current flow regulations Resistors are used, sensors are used to sense the speed and reliability, capacitors store energy, inductor functions in magnetic field, Integrated Circuit IC function is to regulate smooth flow of all components performance. Similarly, Connectors work for transformation of power or signal form one point to another in PCB assembly.

Standard Components for PCB Assembly

These standard components in PCB assembly are crucial in proper placements for ensuring proper efficiency, reliability and functionality of electronics systems and devices.

  • Soldering Techniques

Soldering process is the basic building in Printed circuit Board assembly. The purpose of this process is to join electronics components (mentioned above) on the board with the help of molten solder. Many soldering methods are used to get efficient and proper connection during printed circuit board assemblies.

  • Selective Soldering: 
  • Hand Soldering
  • Surface Mount Technology (SMT)
  • Through-Hole Soldering
  • Infrared Soldering 

Soldering Techniques 

Inadequate soldering can cause various issues in PCB printed circuit board assembly such as weak connection of components, unreliable joints which leads to crack and failure of electronic devices.

  • Proper Testing

Testing PCB assembly is also important. This process enables and check the quality, performance, reliability and functionality of electronics devices and circuits. This process is applied at different phases of printed circuit assemblies production. At aims to get the specified requirements and standards guaranteed before final product launching. 

  • Thermal Management

Thermal management process should be considered in PCB design and assembly. Check and monitor the thermal characteristics during PCB circuits. Excessive temperature and heat can cause PCB’s performance issues, device degradation, reduce circuit board life cycle and even complete damage to  PCB assembly services.

  • Documentation

Write the complete documentation for the assembly process. Which includes 

 printed circuit board assembly specification, instructions, guidelines, terms and conditions for company, tests and all other necessary writeups. Explanatory documentation make the flat execution for PCB assembly services, extends the collaboration among the owners and stakeholders and provide the facility for troubleshooting and continuous improvements in 

 PCB manufacturing and assembly.

Best Considerations in PCB Assembly:

  • Material Selection: 

Material selection is thoughtful factor in PCB Considerations as it can affect many factors like reliability, speed, performance and efficiency of the printed circuit board assembly. Go for PCB materials which meet your specified requirements like substrate factor, dielectric, signal integrity. Following are some main factors which should be considered when selection materials for PCB assembly services.

  • Electronic Components

Make sure high-quality electronic components will be used. We need approved sources to avoid fake or bad-quality components. 

  • PCB Substrates, mainly FR4

FR-4 is most commonly, cost effective, good electrical and mechanical properties and reliable material for electronic PCB assembly. 

  • Copper Foil

It Foil is usually used in printed circuit assembly materials. The more is the copper foil material is thicker the more will be current carrying capacity of the PCB’s and also affect heat dissipation.

  • Solder Mask

These  masks are used to protect the copper traces from effect of oxidation and also prevent improper connections.

  • Thermal Properties
  • Thickness
  • Dielectric Materials 
  • Silkscreen
  • Environmental Factors: 

Environmental Factors also affect the reliability, performance and efficiency of PCB manufacturing and assembly. Environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, chemical exposure, UV radiation exposure, dust, and corrosion should be considered in serious mode.

  • Compliance Standards: 

For Printed Circuit Board design and assembly ensuring international standards for safety, reliability, functionality and performance of electronic devices and products is really essential. 

Printed circuit board assembly and electronics devices will be recognized globally with standards made by organizations like IPC, ISO and IEC to provide instructions for different printed circuit board assemblies. Some usually compliance and safety standards for 

 PCB manufacturing and assembly are as follow.

  • IPC A-610 and IPC J-Standard-001  
  • International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
  • International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
  • Restriction of Hazardous Substances (ROHS)


In Conclusion, obtaining best results in PCB manufacturing and assembly is possible by implementing best practices and consideration. Diligent placement of components, careful packaging and shipping, proper design for manufacturability (DFM), applying best soldering techniques, proper testing and thermal management, accurate documentation and proper compliance standards can strengthen the comprehensive performance, reliability and functioning of PCB assembly services. The successful assembly of printed circuit boards requires careful consideration of design, quality control, and adherence to industry standards.

IEMLabs is an ISO 27001:2013 and ISO 9001:2015 certified company, we are also a proud member of EC Council, NASSCOM, Data Security Council of India (DSCI), Indian Chamber of Commerce (ICC), U.S. Chamber of Commerce, and Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). The company was established in 2016 with a vision in mind to provide Cyber Security to the digital world and make them Hack Proof. The question is why are we suddenly talking about Cyber Security and all this stuff? With the development of technology, more and more companies are shifting their business to Digital World which is resulting in the increase in Cyber Crimes.


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